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08 December 2011


Seniman serba bisa asal Betawi, (alm) Benyamin Sueb, Selasa (8/11/2011) siang, mendapat penghargaan bintang budaya tertinggi dari Pemerintah Indonesia atas jasa-jasa terhadap perkembangan kebudayaan nasional.
Penghargaan itu diberikan Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono di Istana Negara, Jakarta, dan diterima ahli waris Benyamin Sueb, Biem Benyamin. Bersama Benyamin, tokoh budaya dan seniman lain yang menerima bintang Budaya Parama Dharma dalam rangka peringatan Hari Pahlawan 10 November 2011 adalah Hasbullah Parindurie (sastrawan), Harijadi Soemadidjaja (pelukis), Gondo Durasim (seniman ludruk).
Seniman lainnya yang menerima penghargaan adalah Huriah Adam (koreografer dan penari), Idrus Tintin (penyair), Kwee Tek Hoay (sastrawan melayu peranakan), Sigit Sukasman (pencipta wayang ukir), dan Go Tik Swan atau KRT Hardjonagoro (seniman batik), serta Gedong Bagus Oka (budayawan).
Benyamin Sueb lahir di Jakarta, 5 Maret 1939 dan meninggal pada 5 September 1995. Selama hidupnya, Benyamin Sueb sejak 1970 sudah membintangi setidaknya 53 film, memiliki setidaknya 4 album musik betawi, dan ratusan karya lagu.
Ia pernah menerima Piala Citra pada FFI 1973 untuk film Intan Berduri dan piala citra pada FFI 1975 untuk film Si Doel Anak Modern.
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Semoga penghargaan-penghargaan tersebut meningkatkan perhatian setiap elemen bangsa terhadap pentingnya melestarikan budaya bangsa. Sebagai bangsa yang bermartabat, selayaknya kita menunjukan kepedulian terhadap wujud-wujud kebudayaan. Kepedulian itu bisa kita buktikan dengan melakukan pewacanaan budaya (budaya metabudaya) dan pewarisan budaya (culture heritage) kepada generasi muda.  

Sumber: KOMPAS.com 

Olive Oil dan Risiko Stroke

Image source:
 Sumber Tulisan: Langganan artikel Kesehatan Kalbe edisi 01-Jul-2011 Oleh: SFN


Sebuah penelitian baru menyatakan bahwa diet tinggi olive oil menurunkan risiko stroke pada orang dewasa tua. Pada 7600 orang dewasa tua, konsumsi olive oil dosis tinggi pada awal penelitian berkaitan dengan rendahnya insidens stroke untuk lima tahun berikutnya, setelah peneliti mengontrol sejumlah faktor confounding, termasuk gaya hidup dan faktor gizi, faktor risiko stroke, dan lemak darah. Samieri, dkk. meneliti kaitan antara mengkonsumsi olive oil dan insidens stroke pada 7625 orang berusia 65 tahun atau lebih. Mereka diteliti dari penelitian yang sedang berjalan yang sedang mencari faktor risiko vaskuler untuk demensia.
Pada awal penelitian, 1738 pasien (22,8%) melaporkan tidak menggunakan olive oil, 3052 (40,0%) melaporkan penggunaan olive oil dalam dosis sedang, dan 2835 (37,2%) melaporkan penggunaan olive oil secara intensif. Peneliti mengatakan bahwa para pengguna olive oil dengan dosis sedang dan intensif lebih muda dari yang tidak pernah mengkonsumsi olive oil dan memiliki beberapa faktor risiko stroke yang rendah, berat badan lebih ringan, memiliki kadar trigliserida yang lebih rendah dan rasio kolesterol total/HDL yang rendah. Mereka juga lebih tangkas untuk latihan reguler selain itu mereka juga mengkonsumsi ikan, buah, dan sayuran dan minyak yang kaya akan omega 3 lebih sering dibanding dengan yang tidak mengkonsumsi olive oil.
Di atas median 5,25 tahun, 148 insidens stroke tercatat (115 iskemik, 28 hemoragik, 5 tidak terklasifikasi). Setelah penyesuaian untuk variabel sosiodemografi dan pola makan, aktivitas fisik, indeks massa tubuh, dan faktor risiko stroke, peneliti mengobservasi insidens stroke yang rendah dengan penggunaan olive oil (p=0,02). Dibandingkan dengan yang tidak menggunakan olive oil, orang yang menggunakan olive oil secara intensif memiliki risiko stroke 41% lebih rendah. Tidak ada variabel diet yang secara bermakna berkaitan dengan insidens stroke.
Peneliti juga menilai kaitan antara kadar asam oleat di dalam plasma dan insidens stroke pada kelompok dengan 1245 subjek penelitian. Pada kelompok ini, terdapat 27 insidens stroke selama median lima tahun, termasuk 20 stroke iskemik dan 7 stroke hemoragik. Setelah penyesuaian untuk berbagai faktor confounding yang potensial, dibandingkan dengan tertile pertama asam oleat plasma, subyek yang berada pada tertile ketiga memiliki 73% penurunan risiko stroke (95% confidence interval 10%-92%, p = 0.03). Namun demikian, dalam model yang fully-adjusted¬ menggunakan analisis komponen asam lemak jenuh total, asam lemak omega 3 total, dan faktor diet lainnya, intensitas kaitan antara asam oleat plasma dan stroke berkurang (HR 0,25, 95% CI 0,08-0,86; p=0,03).
Satu kelemahan dari penelitian ini adalah tidak dapat dibedakan antara beberapa tipe olive oil yang dikonsumsi. Validitas asam oleat plasma sebagai penanda konsumsi olive oil butuh dievaluasi.Simpulan penelitian ini adalah olive oil memiliki peran protektif pada dewasa tua dari risiko stroke.

07 December 2011

THE DARK AGE (c. 1100 TO 776)

THE DORIANS: THE COLONIZATION OF AEOLIS, IONIA, AND DORIS
SECTIONS: DIPYLON ANTIQUITIES: HESIOD: THE PHOENICIANS AND SOME OTHER NATIONS DURING THE DARK AGE 

OF the age that we have been considering, that of the Achaean supremacy, we have in Homer's poems a wonderfully distinct, though perhaps somewhat imaginative, picture. These Homeric men and women and the world in which they lived, although we have no memorials of
them but words, seem very near to us--nearer by far than many nations of whom we have abundant relics, such as the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Egyptians--nearer, too, than many a people of an age not far removed from our own. Without its vates sacer this Achaean age would doubtless be as much of a blank as the three centuries which followed it-- an epoch which is indeed fairly rich in myths, but about which we know for certain much less than we do about the far earlier Minoan and Egyptian civilizations. One fact, however, is indubitable. It was an epoch of great invasions or 'migrations,' which rapidly changed the character of the population and the civilization in many parts of Greece and extended the Hellenic name to large tracts of country on the other side of the Aegaean Sea.
First, let us see what the myths say.

MYTHICAL ACCOUNTS OF THE MIGRATIONS
Hellen, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, and son of Deucalion (the Greek Noah), was the mythical ancestor of all the Hellenes. Aeolus and Dorus were his sons, Achaeus and Ion his grandsons
through another son. From these 'eponymous' heroes were descended the Aeolians, Dorians, Achaeans, and Ionians. The Aeolians lived in Thessaly and the Dorians in Doris, a
small district in central North Greece. The Ionians settled in the country afterwards called Achaea, and the Achaeans conquered the whole of the Peloponnese except this district
of the Ionians and the mountain strongholds of the Arcadians.
Now in the Peloponnese there had been before the coming of the Achaeans two great reigning dynasties--the descendants of Perseus (who is said to have founded Tiryns and Mycenae) and the Pelopid princes of Pisa, Olympia, and Amyclae, with whom, as we have already seen, the northern Achaean invaders probably intermarried and identified themselves. The last of the Perseid dynasty had been Eurystheus (the king of Argos who enslaved Heracles). He was succeeded by the Pelopid Atreus. On the death of Heracles (traditional date 1209) his children were exiled from Argos. They endeavoured to return and recover their possessions, but after Hyllus, the son of Heracles, had been killed in single combat they promised to renounce all further attempts for a hundred years. At the end of this time ( 1104) they put themselves at the head of a great army of Dorians, 1 who espoused their cause, and who were finding the little district of Doris between Oeta and Parnassus too narrow for their needs. This Dorian host, helped by the Aetolians and Locrians, built a fleet at a port thereafter known as Naupactus ('Place of Shipbuilding'), and overran most of the Peloponnese, which was divided among the Heracleidae and their Dorian allies. The most powerful of the Peloponnesian monarchs was the Pelopid-Achaean Tisamenus, son of Orestes (and, therefore, grandson of Agamemnon). He was either slain or else compelled to retire with his Achaeans to the northern district of the Peloponnese, which was, as already stated, inhabited by Ionians. These Ionians were driven out by the Achaeans, and took refuge in Attica.
Now the king of Athens about this time was Codrus, of the race of Nestor, whose descendants had been driven out of Pylos by the Dorians. When the Dorians also attacked Attica Codrus devoted himself to death, and thus (in accordance with an oracle) saved his country. His sons quarrelled, and when the oracle gave its verdict for one of them the other went off with a 'mixed multitude' consisting to a great extent of the Ionian refugees, and, making his way from island to island across the Aegaean, founded colonies on the coast of Asia Minor, which ultimately developed into Ionia with its twelve great cities.
The story of the 'Aeolic migration' is thus narrated by old writers.
On the 'Return of the Heracleidae'--i.e. invasion of the Peloponnese by the Dorians--those of the Achaeans who did not remain with Tisamenus in Achaea crossed the Isthmus and made their way to Boeotia and thence through Thessaly and Thrace to the Hellespont; or else they reached the port of Aulis, the very place where Agamemnon had been delayed by winds and had started with his assembled fleet for Troy, and thence, accompanied by many Euboeans and others, they sailed across the Aegaean by the chain of islands that stretches from Euboea to the Troad. They made settlements in Lesbos and the adjacent mainland, capturing or founding twelve cities, of which Cyme, named after a town in Euboea, was the first--the mother- city of Smyrna, and mother, or perhaps sister, to the more famous Cyme in Italy, the Cumae of the Romans.
Other forms of the legend, one of which is given by Pindar, make this Aeolian migration take place some twenty years before the 'Return of the Heracleidae' (i.e. in 1124), and affirm that Orestes himself led the emigrants. According to the Augustan writer Strabo, Orestes started with them, but died in Arcadia--a version which agrees with the story of Herodotus that the bones of Orestes were discovered some five and a half centuries later at Tegea, in Arcadia.

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1
Plato gives a very different story, namely, that the Achaeans who returned from Troy were not received by the people at home, and, being expelled, put themselves under the leadership of a chief named Dorieus and changed their name to Dorians. They then allied themselves with the Heracleidae and recaptured the Peloponnese. This is worth mentioning if only to show the very great variations in such old myths.


 
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